Mencari Melayu di Capetown (bahagian 2)

Ramai yang bertanyakan tentang bahasa yang digunakan oleh orang Melayu disini, adakah mereka masih boleh bercakap bahasa Melayu? Jawapan saya, ya cuma tidak begitu fasih seperti datuk dan nenek moyang mereka. Hal ini kerana, apabila mereka dibawa ke Capetown, mereka tidak dibenarkan bercakap bahasa Melayu kerana bimbang akan merancang untuk menentang Belanda ketika itu. Sekiranya didapati bercakap bahasa Melayu, mereka akan di pukul dan diseksa oleh tuan mereka.

(Many people asked me about the language spoken by the Malays here, do they still speak in Malay? My answer is, yes, they do but not as fluent as their ancestors. Because, when they were brought to Capetown, they were not allowed to speak their mother tongue   because the Dutch is afraid that the Malays will revolt against the Dutch. If they are found speaking in Malay, they will be tortured by their masters)

Antara perkataan Melayu yang masih digunakan hingga kini ialah ‘Trema Kasie’ (Terima kasih) yang akan dibalas dengan Kanala (‘Kerana Allah’ @ Kasih kerana Allah), Pierieng (Piring) , Burjanji (Berzanji), Kufiyah (kopiah), Maaf (biasanya untuk ‘excuse me’/’sorry’), Jamang (Jamban), baiedanki (‘banyak’ terima kasih)  dan sebagainya.

(Among the Malay words that is still being used until now is ‘Trema Kasie’ (Thank you), which will be replied with ‘Kanala’ (Because of Allah @Love for Allah) , Pierieng (Saucer), Burjanji (Berzanji) Kufiyah (kopiah), Maaf (usually for ‘excuse me’/’sorry’), Jamang (Jamban), Baiedanki (‘banyak’ terima kasih @ thank you very much) etc.

Ada juga perkataan Melayu yang digunakan khusus merujuk Al Quran seperti ‘Kitab‘, ‘Tamat’ ( Khatam Quran atau tamat belajar agama) dan Baca yang merujuk membaca Al Quran.

(There are Malay words that is used specifically for religious reference such as ‘Kitab’ for Al Quran, ‘Tamat’ for finished (complete reading /learning the Quran or finish learning Islamic studies) , and ‘Baca’ for reading the Al Quran.)

Malah kebanyakan perkataan Melayu banyak mempengaruhi bahasa Afrikaan yang digunakan di Capetown namun tidak disedari oleh generasi kini kerana menyangka ia adalah bahasa Afrikaan , tetapi sebaliknya berasal dari bahasa Melayu

(In fact, there are many Malay words that have strongly influences the Afrikaan language which is used by the locals here but not many people especially the Malays now realize it is actually derives from Malay word and throught that it is Afrikaan language.)

Orang Melayu di Capetown mula tiba di Capetown apabila Belanda menangkap orang-orang Melayu yang menentang Belanda di kepulauan Melayu. Saya tidak begitu arif sepenuhnya tentang sejarah kedatangan mereka kerana kedatangan mereka adalah secara berperingkat. Namun kebanyakan mereka tiba seawal kurun ke 17 dan ada juga yang berlayar ke Capetown mengikut kapal dagang sekitar kurun ke 19. Namun oleh kerana pihak penjajah tidak membenarkan orang Melayu untuk keluar dari Capetown selama 300 tahun lebih maka hubungan orang Melayu disini terputus sehingga berakhirnya Apartheid.  Namun, ada juga orang Melayu yang cuba mencari semula keluarga dan warisan mereka antaranya host saya, Abdullah Waggie di mana datuk dan bapanya berasal dari Surabaya.

(The Malays are said to arrive in Capetown when the Dutch captured the Malays who was fighting against the Dutch at the Malay archipelagos. I am not an expert in the history of their arrival, because most of them come in stages. Most of them arrive in the early 19th century and some sailed to Capetown with a trading ship around 19th century. Since that the Colonials do not allow the Malays to travel outside of Capetown for more than 300 years, the connection between the Malays here with their homeland were disconnected until the end of Apartheid. However, there are Malays that tries to search back their family and their heritage among them were my host, Abdullah Waggie whose grandffather and father are from Surabaya)

Menariknya ada juga ulama seperti  Sheikh Yusuf yang menjadi ‘political exile’ yang mendapat keistimewaan khas untuk tinggal di sebuah ladang di  Zandvleit dan ‘bebas’ bergerak dalam kawasan yang terhad . Sheikh Yusuf  tidak datang berseorangan tetapi bersama 49 orang yang lain yang terdiri daripada  ahli keluarga, pengikut  dan hamba-hambanya. Beliau dibuang ke Capetown kerana menentang Belanda dan  berasal dari Makassar, beliau juga merupakan anak saudara kepada Sultan Alauddin dari Gouwa (kini Makassar,Indonesia).  Beliau disambut oleh Gabenor Cape ketika itu Simon van der Stel , dan dibawa ke ladang Zandvleit  yang menjadi tempat beliau menyebarkan islam. Hingga kini, kawasan ini masih di panggil Macassar.

(Interestingly, there are ulamas like Sheikh Yusuf who were political exiles that recieves special privilege to live in a farm in Zandvleit and ‘free’ to move within a limited area. Sheikh Yusuf did not come alone but with all his 49 followers including his family, followers and household slaves. He was exiled to Capetown because he fought against the Dutch and was from Makassar, who is also the nephew of Sultan Alauddin from Gouwa (now known as Makassar, Indonesia). He was welcomed by the Governor Simon van der Stel and brought to the farm which became the centre for him to teach Islam. Even until now, the area was named as ‘Macassar’ in remembrance of his contribution here.)

Selain itu, terdapat juga tokoh ulama seperti  Tuan Guru Abdus Salam yang  telah dipenjarakan di Robben Island yang merupakan penjara yang sama Nelson Mandela dipenjarakan ketika zaman Apartheid pada tahun 1964.  Menariknya, ‘Tuang Guru’ @ Tuan Guru menulis manuskrip  Al Quran ke dalam bahasa Arab dan Jawi yang beliau hafal semasa di dalam penjara. Hal ini kerana beliau juga seorang hafiz al Quran.

(Other than that, there are other figures like Tuan Guru Abdus Salam who was imprisoned in Robben Island which was also the same prison where Nelson Mandela was sent to during the Apartheid in 1964. Tuang Guru @ Tuan Guru also wrote the Al Quran manuscript into Arab & Jawi which he remembers well since he is a hafiz in Al Quran.)

 

Kubur Tuan Guru Abdus Salam

(The grave of Tuan Guru Abdus Salam)

Masjid terawal di Capetown , Bo Kaap, di mana Tuan Guru mendirikan madrasah dan mengajar agama Islam

(The earliest mosque in Capetown where Tuan Guru start his own madrassa and teach Islam)

Al Quran yang ditulis oleh Tuan Guru, bertulis tangan semasa dipenjarakan di Robben Island yang disimpan oleh Masjid Auwal.

(Hand written Al Quran by Tuan Guru while he was imprisoned in Robben Island which is still kept by Masjid Auwal)

Walaubagaimanapun, saya dibawa bertemu salah seorang waris Tuan Guru iaitu Mutaqqin (tiga dari kiri) yang merupakan  generasi kelima kepada salah seorang anak Tuan Guru. Beliau memberitahu bahawa Tuan Guru merupakan imam terawal di Capetown dan mengajar di Masjid  Auwal, di Bo Kaap yang merupakan penempatan orang Melayu terawal. Beliau membina madrassah untuk mengajar islam sebaik dibebaskan dari penjara sehingga ia diterima sebagai  sebahagian dari sistem pendidikan ketika itu. Mutaqqin sendiri boleh bercakap bahasa Melayu kerana banyak bergaul dengan orang Melayu dari  Indonesia semasa belajar di luar negara dan beliau juga mempunyai master dari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia mengenai Pengaruh Bahasa Melayu dalam Bahasa Afrikaan.

(I also met one of the fifth descendants of Tuan Guru, Mutaqqin from one of the Tuan Guru son lineage (Third from left). According to him, Tuan Guru is the earliest Imam in Capetown and taught in Auwal Mosque in Bo Kaap which became the Malay quarters in the early days. He build a madrassa and taught islam as soon as he was released from priosn that his teachings became part of the education system at the time. Mutaqqin himself can speak Malay which he learns from the Indonesians while studying abroad. He also obtained his Master from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia on ‘The Influence of Malay language in Afrikaan language’ ) 

 

Saya juga berpeluang melihat 3  manuskrip yang di tulis tangan sekitar kurun ke 18 yang disimpan di National Library South Africa. Namun penulisnya tidak diketahui kerana peribadi orang Melayu yang tidak mahu dikenali apabila menulis sesuatu kerana bimbang menimbulkan riak. Oleh itu pengkaji masih cuba mengenal pasti penulis manuskrip tersebut dan isi kandungannya. Oleh kerana ia masih dalam kajian, saya tidak dibenarkan mendedahkan isi kandungan manuskrip tersebut.

(I also got the opportunity to look at 3 manuscripts, all handwritten around 18th century which was kept at the National Library of South Africa. However, the writer is unknown because the Malay writers at the time prefers to remain anonymous when they write fearing that it will lead to arrogance. Therefore their researchers is still trying to identify the author of the manuscripts and the contents of it. Due to confidentiality, I am not allowed to disclose the content of the manuscript)

Terdapat banyak ‘Kramat’ atau perkuburan wali-wali yang dianggap ‘keramat’ di Capetown antaranya Orang Cayen (orang Kaya)  , Syed Alowie yang dilantik sebagai polis di Capetown selepas dibebaskan dari penjara. Oleh kerana statusnya sebagai polis, membolehkan Islam berkembang dengan lebih pesat lagi. Mereka dikuburkan di Tana Baru (masih mengekalkan nama yang sama)

[There are a lot of ‘Kramat’ or graveyard of the wali’s (respectable person ) which the Malay regard as ‘Keramat’ (holds special power) in Capetown. Among them were, Orang Cayen (a calling name for rich  Malay man), Syed Alowie who was appointed as police after he was released. Because of his status as police, it enables him to spread islam better. They were buried at Tana Baru (still using the same name)]

Di samping itu, saya turut melawat museum District Six yang menjadi penempatan awal orang Melayu, semasa zaman Apartheid mereka dipaksa pindah keluar kerana ia dijadikan kawasan orang putih sahaja (White area) . Oleh kerana warna kulit orang Melayu yang berwarna gelap dan coklat, mereka turut didiskriminasi oleh kerajaan Apartheid ketika itu. Kesan dari Group Area Act 1950, ramai orang Melayu yang dahulunya tinggal di Bo Kaap, Constantia dan District Six dipindahkan ke kawasan seperti Cape Flatts, Mitchell’s Plain yang jauh dari bandar utama. Ini mengubah sosioekonomi orang Melayu setelah rumah dan tanah mereka dirampas oleh Apartheid. Mereka juga diberi kad pengenalan  yang tercatat ‘Melayu’ pada kad mereka.

[Other than that, I also visited District Six Museum which became the early Malay settlements , before they were forcedto move out during the Apartheid to be made as the White Area.Due to the skin color, the Malays were also discriminated. The impact of Group Area Act 1950 forces the Malays to move from places like Bo Kaap, Constantia, District Six to other areas like Cape Flatts, Mitchell’s Plain which is far from the city centre. This changed the socioe-conomy of the Malays and some became poor after their house and land was stripped off.  They were also give an identity card which states ‘Malay’.]

Terdapat juga koleksi gambar dan barang-barang yang dibawa oleh orang Melayu semasa mereka berpindah antaranya:

[There were also photo collections and stuffs theat was carried by the Malays when they were forced to move out, among them were: ]

Rempah ratus yang digunakan untuk memasak

Menurut host saya, ramai orang Melayu yang menjadi tukang masak  kepada tuan orang putih terutamanya Belanda dan kemudiannya British. Oleh itu banyak masakan Melayu yang telah diubahsuai mengikut cita rasa ‘tuan’ mereka. Ini menyebabkan masakan orang Melayu turut berubah walapun nama Melayu masih dikekalkan. Antaranya, Blatjang (Belacan), Penangkerrie (Kari Penang),  Boeber (Bubur), Frikkadel (Bergedil) dan sebagainya.

[According to my host, many Malays became cooks for their Masters especially Dutch and then the British. Because of this, a lot of the Malay food have been modiefied to suit the  taste of their ‘Masters’. This makes the Malay cooking change even though the name remains. Example:  Blatjang (Belacan), Penangkerrie (Kari Penang),  Boeber (Bubur), Frikkadel (Bergedil)

 Menariknya, orang Melayu menjadi pilihan penjajah kerana mereka pandai menggunakan rempah ratus dan paling utama mereka adalah orang Islam yang terkenal dengan kebersihan dan turut menggunakan daging halal dalam masakan mereka. Saya akan kongsi tentang makanan orang Melayu di post seterusnya.

[Interestingly, the Malays became a favorite choice by the colonials because they are very good in using spices  and importantly because they were muslim which is known to be a clean person and uses halal meat in their cooking. I will share on the Malay cooking in the next post.]

Seramik yang ditulis dalam bahasa Melayu 

Dari segi pekerjaan, orang Melayu sangat kreatif dan banyak menggunakan pekerjaan yang melibatkan kerja tangan seperti mengukir kayu, membuat rotan, membuat perabut, menangkap ikan dan menjahit. Malah, banyak bangunan lama di Capetown sebenarnya di bina oleh orang Melayu.

[In terms of occupation, the Malays are very creative with their hands, and many of them works as carvers, rottan maker, furniture maker, fisherman and tailors. Many old buildings in Capetown were actually built by the Malays.] 

Dari segi amalan tradisi, orang melayu disini masih mengekalkan tradisi seperti sambutan Maulud Nabi, di mana malam Maulud Nabi, amalan ‘Rampies’ diadakan. dengan memotong bunga-bunga dan kulit oren , sebelum diasapkan dengan setanggi dan dibungkus untuk diberi kepada tetamu seperti yang pernah saya tulis di post sebelum ini. (Rujuk: bahagian 1)

(Traditionally, the Malays still continues their traditions such as Maulud Nabi, whereby the night before the Maulud,  ‘Rampies’ ceremony are held by cutting the local flowers and orange peel, which then smoked with incense and folded into small pouch to be given to the male guests as mentioned in previous post (Refer: part 1) ]

Majlis memberi nama kepada anak yang baru lahir, seperti yang tercatat dalam gambar di atas, anak orang Melayu di dalam gambar ini dinamakan ‘Fatima Februarie’. Sebenarnya, ‘Februari’ merupakan bulan keluarga ini dibebaskan dari menjadi hamba oleh tuan mereka. Oleh itu kebanyakan orang Melayu yang mempunyai nama akhir mengikut bulan, merupakan dari golongan hamba. Namun ada juga yang bukan hamba dan mengekalkan nama dari keluarga yang mereka dilahirkan. Nama-nama orang Melayu di Capetown kebanyakannya mengikut tulisan Belanda, disebabkan itu ‘Muhammad’ berubah menjadi ‘Moegammat’ (huruf ‘g’ disebut ‘h’).

[The name giving ceremony for new borns, as stated in the picture above, according to this picture  , his daughter were named ‘Fatima Februarie’. In reality, ‘Februarie’ is the month where the family was freed by their Masters. Therefore, the Malays who had the month name as their last name were once slaves. However, there are also Malays who were free people and uses their family name. The Malay names in Capetown mostly uses the Dutch spelling, thats why ‘Muhammad’ will change into ‘Moegammat’ (the ‘g’ pronounced as ‘h’) ]

Saya juga turut membaca suratkhabar tempatan disini yang ada menulis tentang pengalaman menunaikan haji. Setelah pulang dari haji, kebanyakan wanitanya akan memakai pakaian ‘Hujaj’ yang dibeli dari Mekah daripada orang Melayu disana. Pakaian ini turut digunakan untuk menjemput pengantin perempuan ke rumah baru suaminya dan mereka akan melayan pengantin baru selama 7 hari. Pengantin dilayan bak ‘Raja 7 hari’ dan mereka tidak perlu berbuat apa-apa termasuk masak, kemas rumah dan sebagainya. Biasanya ahli keluarga dalam keluarga pengantin lelaki yang pernah menunaikan haji akan datang melakukan semua kerja-kerja tersebut.

[I also read the local newspaper which had an article on the Malays experience in going for Hajj in the olden times. Upon returning from Hajj, the womens will wear ‘Hujaj’ which was bought from Mekah that was sold by the Malays there. This dress was also worn when the ‘Hujaj’ brings home the Bride to the Groom house and they were treated like a ‘King’ for 7 days. They are not allowed to do anything including cooking, cleaning, and etc which will be done by the Hujaj. Usually, the family members of those who went to Hajj of the Groom side will be doing all the work.]

Menurut orang disini, sekiranya kita dijemput menghadiri majlis perkahwinan pada minggu tersebut, bermakna majlis tersebut adalah majlis kecil. Tetapi jika kita dijemput menghadiri majlis tersebut sebulan dari sekarang, majlis tersebut merupakan majlis yang besar. Saya turut dijemput menghadiri majlis perkahwinan salah seorang kenalan host saya yang akan saya kongsi kemudian.

[According to the locals, if we were invited to attend weddings in this week, it is a small wedding but if we are invited to attend a wedding a month from now, it means it will be a big wedding. I was invited to attend a Malay wedding of one of my host friends which I will share in another post.]

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