‘Intellectual History Of Islam In The Malay Nusantara Century Literature 14-19 AD’

‘Intellectual History Of Islam In The Malay Nusantara Century Literature 14-19 AD’

Islam has emerged in the archipelago around the 8th century and 9 M carried by Arab and Persian traders. Still new in the 13th century M, along with the founding of the Indian government Pasai (1272-1450 AD), this religion began to grow and spread. In this oldest major Islamic government and Islamic cultural civilization grow and bloom. As a prosperous trading city and a major center of religious activity in the archipelago, Why should not only focus the attention of the Arab and Persian traders.But also attracted the attention of scholars and intellectuals from the Arab and Persian states to come to this city with the aim of spreading the faith and develop knowledge. In the book Rihlah (Paris 1893:230), Ibn Batuta who visited Sumatra in 1336 M, preached that kings and nobles Pasai often invite scholars and intellectuals from the Arab and Persian to discuss various matters of religion and religious knowledge in his palace. Due to overwhelming response that they were happy to live in Pasai and open education agency that allows teaching of Islam and the religion evolved.

Knowledge taught in Islamic educational institutions among others are:

(1) Basics of Islamic teachings,

(2) Islamic law,

(3) Knowledge Kalam or theology;

(4) Knowledge of Sufism,

(5) Knowledge of Tafsir and Hadith:

(6) A variety of other knowledge which is essential for the spread of Islam such as mathematics, Mantiq (logic), grammar (Arabic grammar), astronomy, science ketabiban, date etc..

In addition to religious knowledge and general knowledge, which is taught in Islamic educational institutions at that time were Arab and Persian Literature (Hamid Ismail 1983:2)

One of the oldest Islamic intellectual work that is produced in Pasai Pasai Kings saga. Book is written after the Majapahit kingdom conquered by the year 1365 (Ibrahim Alfian 1999:52). Seen from the pattern of the Malay language and the characters are used, the work done at the time of complete Malay language has truly experienced the process of Islamization and Jawi characters, namely Arabic characters Malayised, has started strong and broadly used. Further Malay Jawi Pasai and characters are used by Muslim writers in the archipelago until the end of the 19th century as a lingua franca M key intellectual field as in the field of trade and administration (Collin 1992).

Intellectual works of the early Muslims who were born in the range of government

Samudra Pasai is plated several Persian epic, as Hikayat Muhammad Ali Hanafiya Hikayat Amir Hamzah, Hikayat Bayan Budiman and others. Two first tale is a story of heroism (EPOS), based on the history of heroism in the early period of Islam’s propagation. In Malay History (1607 M) Tun Sri Lanang this tale mentions that two very popular in Malacca at the end of the 15th century CE and Malacca people read it to inspire their war against the Portuguese. Tun Sri Lanang also mentions favorite people their sultan of Malacca and Sufism. A book Durr al-Manzum Sufism Maulana Abu Ishaq essay was translated into Malay language Patakan Abdullah, a famous scholar from Pasai, meet request Mansur Shah, Sultan of Malacca mid 15th century M (Ibrahim Alfian 1999:53).

Now the saga Budiman, a framed story included into such kind of solace Thousand and One Nights story. Islamic works of other very popular is Qasidah al-Burdah, strands of praise poems to the Prophet Muhammad commonly sung together in celebration of Birthday of Prophet. This book was written by Shaykh al-Busiri, an Egyptian Sufi poet of the 13th century CE and was translated into Malay language in the 15th century M. In his book Tuhfat al-Mujahideen, Muslim historians of the 15th century M Zainuddin al-Ma `bari who’ve been to Sumatra say that Islamic preachers preaching to speak run stories about the life and struggle of the Prophet Muhammad and the result is very effective (Ismail Hamid 1983:27).

After Pasai suffered a setback, the cultural center and the spread of Islam moved to Malacca (1400-1511 M) and after Malacca Portuguese ditalukkan the cultural center and the spread of Islam was moved to Aceh Darussalam (1516-1700 m).

But unfortunate that copies of Islamic Malay written in the 14th century and 15 M almost no one comes to us now script-script found, most are copies or arrangement, written in the 16th century and 17 M, in particular in coastal cities such as Barus within the Sultanate of Aceh, Pasai and others. It’s just obvious, as in the days of Hindu literature major media delivery tampi ideas and religious sciences. This tendency continues to stick in the development of Malay literature until the 18th century and 19 M.

From the fact that we also know that there are several types of early literature favored, that the work pattern of history, stories of the prophets, especially the story about the life and struggle of the Prophet Muhammad, who works as a framed story pelipu r Lara and thus its teaching media character. Also the fact is we know that Sufism is very influenced soul Malay Muslim intelligentsia.

Transition Age

Taufik Abdullah (2002) divide the history of Islamic thought in the archipelago from the 13th century to the mid 19th century M into three waves. First wave is the wave of the policies put the Islamic cosmopolitanism, namely cultural attitudes that make themselves as part of a cosmopolitan society with Islamic culture references. This wave occurred before and after the advent of the Indian government Pasai to the end of the 14th century M. In the second wave occurred culture and the reality of the process of Islamization in a big way. Islam is used as a mirror to see and understand reality. Old inheritance from pre-Islamic times, the Syamanistik, Hinduistik and Buddhistik transformed into a situation of Islamic thought and rarely understood as something that islami from the standpoint of doctrine. This wave concur with the advent of the Malacca Sultanate (1400-1511) and Aceh Darussalam (1516-1700).In the Third Wave, as centers of Islam in the archipelago began to spread almost all over the archipelago, this power centers ‘seem’ are competing to produce great scholars. In this wave of Islamic orthodoxy process experienced peak time. This happened in the century 18-19 M.

First wave called Taufik Abdullah’s referred to as the Early and transition in the history of Islamic Literature in the archipelago, especially the Malays. At this time-sajajk translation eulogy to the Prophet (al-MADA `ih al-nabawiyah) began, followed by plating the stories and sagas Arab Muslim Persian into Malay language as Masjid Muhammad Ali Hanafiyah, Hikayat Amir Hamzah, Hikayat Bayan Budiman and others. This period is followed by the transition, which is marked by copying and compositing back masterpieces of Hindu-Buddhist period with given environment and Islamic breath. The characteristics of the transition of the work is very interesting, because the elements of Islam that appear initially insignificant. Allah Ta `ala instance initially called Super Noble Gods, then replaced the new King Shah Alam and then called Allah Subhana wa Ta` ala. Honourable mention Prosecutor, Raja Shah Alam and others look for example at poetry Sufism Fansuri Hamzah and his disciples in the 16th century and 17 M.Similarly, figures from the story given Muslim names. The role of the gods replaced by jinn, lords, fairies and other fine makhluq. Was not a place for stories rarely transferred to the state whose king had converted to Islam. And the king told a victory for belief in the omnipotence That One.

The stories of Hindu time sheets or dgubah back in general are stories that include the type of solace, especially the kind of love story and adventure spiced war between the figures in favor of the heathen king kebanaran against wrongdoers. Sooner or later these stories transformed into allegory or parable Sufi stories. The famous example is the saga Mardan Shah, a Sufi allegory written based on a story from India that is similar to the popular story Anglingdarma in Java. Mardan Shah tokohnya adventure and do battle against his enemies, revamped its function, namely to explain the stages spiritually (maqam) that must be a seeker of knowledge of God in Sufism or mysticism. If unabridged-Grave Grave These include:

(1) struggle, struggle subjecting yourself or low libido composure;

(2) Musyahadah, witnessing the oneness of the One intuitively or kalbiah;

(3) Mukasyafah, tersingkapnya veil that covers the inner vision.

Unlike the Shah Mardan saga, composed based on the Hindu story, is the story of Dewa Ruci, composed based on the story of Alexander the Great Islamic Persia saga. Iskandar figure Milky replaced, and replaced with the God of the Prophet Khaidir Ruci. Water of Life motif search (ma `al-life) in the story, the search for enlightenment is the omen or divine knowledge that causes a person to remain (hereafter ‘) in the Eternal, that God Almighty.

It is at this time the influence of Sufism and Persian literature is very dominant in all aspects of Islamic culture. The order of the chapters in the saga and the books of Sufism is also copied from the model found in Persian literature. The best example of such works is The Tale of the Poor, Master’s Degree saga, saga Ahmad Mohammed, ma Hikyat There was said, and Tale of Tale Indraputra Shah Mardan.So did the Book of Taj al-Salatin (The Crown of Kings) written by al-Bukhari Jeweler in Aceh in early 17th century, the various chapters copied the restructuring of the Persian scriptures that talk of ethics and governance problems.

Unfortunately, as has been presented, original copies of the works written in the 14th century and 15 M tu have not found it yet. Paper copies are generally observed during the 17th abd M. Of course both the content as well as language and style order sastranya already undergone changes. To know the main features of the works of the transition period we must turn to Java, in particular-mysticism mysticism mysticism Sunan Bonang and pamphlets written between the end of the 15th century and early 16th century M. Makhdum Ibrahim alias Sunan Bonang was a Sufi saint of the island of Java that is very prolific in the world of writing. He lived between the mid-15th century until the early 16th century M, corresponding to the last great Hindu kingdom retreat Majapahit and Demak Sultanate bangunya, the first Islamic kingdom in Java. He had studied at Malacca and Pasai. His works truly reflect the transition from Hinduism to Islam in the archipelago.

Sunan Bonang works on mysticism in general form, namely in the form of poems featuring Javanese tembang way spiritually in the knowledge of Sufism, using a symbol-a symbol or parable. Between mysticism is mysticism-suluknya Caliph, Kaderesan mysticism, mysticism Regol, Bentur mysticism, mysticism Wujil, Wasiyat mysticism, mysticism Latri Gita and others. He also wrote a treatise of Sufism in the form of a dialogue between a Sufi teacher and students. One of the versions of the brochure tasawufnya been transliterated and translated into English by Drewes (1969) under the title The Admonitions of Seh Bari (“Pitutur Sheikh Bari”). Among the characteristics of the transition work

1. Works of literature, as other religious and intellectual discourse,

regarded as mysticism, that is less spiritual path toward the Supreme Truth.

2. Aesthetic vision made based literary asaspenciptaan

on metaphysics or cosmology developed Islamic Arab and Persian Sufi of the 12th century and 13 M as Ibn `Arabi, Imam al-Ghazzali and Jalaluddin al-Rumi. Following system Sufi metaphysics, the nature of existence so split four, reality and order of beauty or truth presented in the paper also consists of four structured in hierarchical layers. Four natural or inherent order from top to bottom is the Divine Nature (nature Lahut), Nature spiritually (natural jabarut), Nature squalor (natural Malakut) and Physical Environment (natural nasut).

3. Elements of local culture to be preserved and integrated into the system

Islam. For example, one member mentioned mahayogi enlightened, whereas in Malay book called pastor. Shaykh new words and faqir used. To explain the relationship with the One ‘a lot’, used the relationship between the puppeteer, puppet and color movies.

4. Analogously erotic imagery (love) from often used to describe the experience of transcendental love (‘ishq) seorangsalik (facer spiritual path) in found Lover, The One.

New Self consciousness

Final actual transition time can not be given a clear boundary in the history of the Malay Islamic Literature, because the works are written or composed in the 15th century and 16 M still composed back in the following centuries, but until the 19th century M, good in Malay or Javanese, Sundanese, Acehnese, Bugis, Madurese, Sasak, Banjar, Minangkabau, Makassar, Mandailings and others. But the end of the 16th century and the early twentieth century M-17 M, corresponding to the expansion of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam as a large state in Southeast Asia, the second wave began in the sense of Islamic thought indeed. Currently Islamization of reality is actually executed fully and Islam is used as a mirror to see and understand the reality of life in almost every aspect. Two interconnected symptoms appear dominant at this time, namely the tendency expressed glance at the reflection of Sufism in question man’s relationship with the Eternal, and the formulation of the power systems that generate book about the theory of statehood (Taufik Abdullah, 2002). At this time of great men appear in the field of religion and literature are thinking color and determine the intellectual development of Islam at the time afterwards.

The first represents the dominant symptoms and Syamsudin Sumatrani Fansuri Hamzah (also called Pasai Syamsudin) with the disciples at the end of the 6th century and early 17th century M. Representing the second symptom is Bukhari al-Jauhari and Nuruddin al-Raniri, which appear in order in the first half of the 17th century M, when Aceh achieve peak success as a religious center, cultural and political activities of Muslims. At this time the religious scriptures – fiqh, theology and mysticism – for the first time systematically written, philosophical and scientific. So did this for the first time ever born religious poems, especially poems Sufism, a truly self-expressive and raise a new consciousness. Through the works of the Sufis and scholars of the 17th century Aceh M Islam told this as part of a ‘legitimate self’ and part of ‘the history of the archipelago’ legitimate anyway. Like Taufik Abdullah said, “In this second wave, power theory that departs from the approach formulated sufistik start. ‘Country’ is no longer just refelksi from kedirian the king but also a platform for the institution that is the realization of a harmonious union between the ‘king’ and ‘the people’, and between makhluq and Khaliq “(Ibid).

The first symptom is a key figure Fansuri Hamza, a prominent Sufis, theologians, great writer and adventurer. He was born in the land Fansuri or Barus, and the estimated life of the mid-16th century and 17 M. Since the end of the 16th century M native land into the territory of Aceh Darussalam. According to Ali Hasymi (1984), along with his brother Ali Fansuri, he set up a foster mother (pesantren) large Singkil district, not far from his birthplace.

Hamzah Fansuri first learn after a member tariqah Sufism Qadiriyah erected by Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani and in this tariqah is he dibai’at. Having traveled to various Islamic centers such as Baghdad, Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem, he returned to his homeland and to develop their own teaching of Sufism. Sufism teachings he developed greatly influenced thinking wujudiyah Ibn `Arabi, al-Qunawi Sadrudin and Fakhrudin` Iraqi. While sastranya writings greatly influenced Fariduddin al-Aththar, Jalaluddin al-Rumi and Abdur Rahman al-Jami.

Brochure Sufism Shaykh al-Fansuri found there are three, namely wine of al-`Asyiqin (Beverage People erotica), Asrar al-` Arifin (Confidential Member Enlightenment) and al-Muntahi. Wine of his book al-Asyiqin by al-Attas (1970) is regarded as his first. In addition it is considered also as the first scientific treatise written in the Malay language. Other versions of the title Zinat al-Muwahhidin (Monotheists jewelry). While tasawufnya poems found no less than 32 tie-ties or string [1]. Lyric poetry is considered as “poetic Malay ‘first written in the Malay language, that quatrain with AAAA final sound pattern in each row (Al-Attas 1968 Braginsky 1991 and 1992). Syamsudin al-Sumatrani (d. 1630 M) said the poem is as ruba’i, that quatrain with two Misra ‘(Ali Hasymi 1975)

Lyric poetry has some specific features in the future be part of it attached to the common features of Malay poetry Sufism. In addition to showing that the lyric poetry of his time from the process of Islamization of the Malay culture reached its zenith. Ssyair important features poems Hamzah Fansuri are: First, the application of such markers faqir authorship, commerce subsidiary, herbal child, `asyiq etc., all of which transformed the concept of Sufi spiritual level (maqam) highest spiritual path or knowledge mysticism. Second, many passages of the Qur’an, Hadith, sayings and words of Arabic, some of which have long been used as a metaphor, terminology and conceptual citraan Sufi writers of Arabic and Persian. In conceptual citraan taken from the Qur’an and made contemplative Sufi center is al-Bayt al-ma `mur (Q 52:4) to mention the Kaaba and heart; qaba qawsayn awadna (53:9) = distance circle two bows, describe nearby God and man; Ayna tuwallu fa-ma-tsamma wajh God (Q 2:115) = where are you looking at even the face of God will appear; kuntu kanzan.

Third, in each of the last stanza poem bail-bond of the Sufis always include the name and takhallus her self, that nickname name that is usually based on the name of the birthplace of the poet or the city where he grew up. There the poet also expresses kesufianyang experience level and achieved. Here the poet really emphasize the importance of individuality in the creation of poetry (Teeuw 1994 Abdul Hadi WM 2001: 136-146).

Fourth, the use of imagery and citraan-citraan symbolic or conceptual common Sufi poets in the Arab and Persian Sufism draw their experiences and ideas with regard to love, mystical intoxication, mortal, enlightened, order exists and others. Eg wine or alcohol intoxication mystical and wine glasses; bird (soul), which merges with ocean fish, which refers to the mystical associations; lover, who is more often called Mahbub; ocean and waves, or markab ship, which sailed to the city of Tawheed; hill hamper or a ‘mountain of asyiq meet with her Lover; travel and night use a torch torches (Muhammad), Kabah, and so forth. This is analogous imagery transformed into the cultural and natural environment Malay life.Converted into wine and grape sorbet, wine glasses revamped with Takir from banana leaves.

In addition there are quite a lot of natural imagery taken from Malay life and culture, such as wood, camphor, boat with amenities and much more of course. Parable or symbolic citraan-citraan used as a means to describe the experience of Sufism poets around maqam (spiritual level) and ahwal (spiritual state) achieved a spiritual path facer (mysticism). All the above indicate prevalence poet knowledge of Arabic and Persian literature, as well as familiarity with the culture of poets society.

Fifth, because a well-balanced mix between diction (choice of words), rhyme and other puitik elements, Hamzah Fansuri poems creates a ekstase (wajd) in reading, not less like atmosphere that is created at the time of the Sufis do ritual, rites and same, ‘the spiritual concert accompanied by chanting, singing and reading poetry.

Emphasis on individuality with respect to the fact that Sufism own experience. Annemarie Schimmel (1981:17) says: “Sufism means, the formulation period, primarily as a spiritually deepening Islamic teachings, a personal experience about the secret essence of the Islamic religion, namely faith, ‘witness (musyahadah) that God is One”.

To specify that the expressed in the poems is a personal experience, the string of bytes closing lyric (ranging from 13 to 21 bytes) poet always put his name and takhallus. In Sufi literature convention is intended as a liberation of the soul, the other is a transient form of ‘(removal of low nafsru due fused with the Eternal Will. Jiawa release is another form of the enlightened. Collection demonstrate the following:

Hamzah Fansuri in the Malay States
Place lime in wood
Originally manikam of which would wither
With world knowledge in breast eateth
(Tie-bond XV)

Hamzah Syahr Nawi too write
Like all charred wood
Originally sea no torrent
Become lime in Camphorated
(Tie-bond XXVI)

In the poem “Hamzah Fansuri the Malay states / Location of the lime in the wood …” he uses the analogy of a tree Camphorated main production city of his birth. The analogy used to describe the transient experience ‘, as he says, “Like all charred wood.” Sometimes it replaces wood citraan with his physical body as the inner self (soul) do `uzlat to finally get enlightened and see that he is actually more of a spiritual than makhluq physical makhluq:

Hamza `uzlat in the body
Ronanya exhausted all autumn
Outward and inward into torch
He had no enemies
(Tie-bond XVIII)

Sometimes travel as a cruise heading digambarkaan Sufism Tawheed City. Travel Sufism in fact also a dive into the ocean there. To show the analogy is analogous diving into the ocean. Penyir use the analogy of which also saw an increase in his close poet Malay culture and community life. The beauty of women’s clothing Malays who live in homes that berpatam marginal and doors filled with beautiful sculptures, made tasawufnya imagery to convey ideas.

Subhan Allah too perfect
Make pious and ignorant people
With his slave da’im It washil
That’s sweetheart called fair
Mahbubmu was no fighting
Another more pious nobleman
Love more virtuous
Captured by the beta
Another flower Bersunting bermalai
Various color separation
Know the air (sem) sound in sakai (= makhluq)
By the people oblivious
Remember-remember you passing
Do not rush you dizzy
Muhammad Yogya torch thou make
That come your way salim
His house `ali berpatam marginal
Perfect wise kindness bisai
Fine lid too Pingai
Da’im air (sem) sound behind the curtain
If so you `Ashiq and drunk
Wearing Khandi go menjaluk
Into the fence Yogya kaumasuk
Ghayr goods (= the other) God all you batty
(Tie-bond II)

Overview trip up from low to high to draw Sufi spiritual journey toward self from low desires Ultimate is compatible with an overview of the Sufi order present in the ontology. The order from bottom to top are: First, the nature nasut (physical environment, also known as al-mulk nature, nature testimony); second nature Malakut (spiritual nature, psyche, also called natural example; Third, environmental jabarut (spiritual realm) , and four nature Lahut (divine nature) (Md. Salleh Yaapar 2002:83). Someone who knows the nature of such order will be completed dirnya and was exposed to recognize the fact itself.

Taj al-Salatin

This book written in 1603 finished in Aceh Darussalam and is the only essay Bukhari al-Jauhari found to date. When the Sultanate of Aceh was still under the reign of Sultan Alauddin Shah Ri `aayat title Sayyid al-Mukammil (1590-1604 AD), grandfather of Sultan Iskandar Muda (1607-1636 m). This book as a work of literature in the book are grouped into manners, namely books that discuss issues of ethics, politics and government. Description of the problems is explained through interesting stories, taken from various sources and then refashioned by the author,

Among the books that are used as reference materials are (1) symbols of al-Mulk or Siyasat-namah(Book of Politics) Nizam al-Mulk essays written between 1092 to 1106 m, (2) Asrar-namah (Book of Secrets of Life) Fariduddin ‘Attar works (1188), (3) work Muhsini Akhlaq Husain al-Wa `iz Kasyifi ​​(1494) (4) Stories Arabic and Persian as Layla and insane, Khusraw and Sirin, Joseph and wife, Mahmud and Ayaz , and many more; (5) Book Jami ‘al-Thawarikh (Book of World History) written to Sultan Mughal in Delhi namely Humayun (1535-1556), and others.

The question presented is warm questions at that time. Although the Sultanate of Aceh is undergoing an internal crisis, which caused Sultan Sayyid al-Mukammil forced abdication by her two children and then put in prison at the time of Aceh is actively expanding his realm. Several states have not been Muslim population, such as land and Karo Batak, also conquered. In Bukhari al-Jauhari his attempt to explain how should the kings of Malay Muslims in a state whose population of multi-ethnic, multi-religious, multi-racial and multi-cultural.

Ideas and stories contained in this book is influencing political thought and intellectual tradition Malay.Chapters in it, that idea and tree deliberated always propped up by the verses of al-Qur `an and Hadith that is relevant. So did the stories used in part derived from the history books, as well as the stories of the people who are in the book as Alf Laylah wa Laylah (Thousand and One Nights) and others.Meaning implicit in the stories can be referred to in the verses of al-Qur’an and Hadith collected.

Sometimes the story acts as a base interpretation and meaning of the sacred text / meaning of tree stand trial. Sometimes at the end of the trial diselipkan poetry, which is a simple expression or conclusion of the trial plants. There are two basic underlying principal of this book: (1) Basic motion or discussion of the origin and Furu ‘, ie the branches of the discussion, (2) Basic aesthetic, that aesthetic means such as the use of stories and poems are used in explaining the topic . Aesthetic foundation was built from a central point of discussion, namely the problem of justice. And justice is seen as a door to the truth. Necessary to uphold justice wisdom and maturity in thought or use common sense.

The book is divided into 24 bab.Bab first was a turning point in the whole discussion discuss the importance of problem identification, identification of God as the light of the world and the truth of life and death problem. Themselves to be known by every Muslim is a man as vicegerent of God on earth and His servants. Through the teachings of Sufism, Bukhari al-Jauhari submit statehood ideal system and the role of a king is just and right.

Menurur Bukhari, though the world is a temporary place for the man, but the world has its own value and meaning that can not be ignored. The world is a test in which human deeds is crucial for survival in the afterlife. The heaviest punishment will be accepted by the kings of the dhalim and unfair, because they have more power than others, so freely organize and govern another man. Good and just king is the shadow of God, run something based on tradition and the law of God, are al-Rahman and al-womb as Khaliqnya.

In discussing justice, Bukhari not only provide ethical and moral meaning, but also gives him or metafisis ontological meaning. Here the king is good, as those entrusted albab. Those entrusted albab ethically interpreted as a person who uses the mind with good common sense in carrying out all acts and employment, especially in government. Sense, in Arabic, is alluded to as a cave situated high on a hill and difficult to achieve. Glory reason stated in the Hadith, `Awwal ma` lLahu’l khalaqa-`aql. The sign people use common sense and good thoughts are: (1) Be nice to the people who do wrong, please forgive him when his heart and had to apologize and repent;. (2) Be humble of people as inferior and respect the dignity, wisdom and higher knowledge, (3) Working in earnest and businesslike good job and noble act.; (4) Hate jobs despicable, evil act, all forms of defamation and the news is not necessarily true: ( 5) Menyebut nama Allah senantiasa dan meminta ampun serta petunjuk kepada-Nya, ingat akan kematian dan siksa kubur; (6) Mengatakan hanya apa yang benar-benar diketahui dan dimengerti, dan sesuai tempat dan waktu, yaitu arif menyampaikan sesuatu; (7) Dalam kesukaran selalu bergantung kepada Allah swt dan yakin bahwa Allah dapat memudahkan segala yang sukar, asal berikhtiar dan berdoa dengan sungguh-sungguh.As reliance mahluq all, God is forgiving and kind.During this chapter Bukhari al-Jauhari collecting stories from Bani Sassab Nusyirwan king, who, when asked a judge of the intellect, common sense says that the government and sign jewelry perfection Persian kings . The wise and just bout as heavy tree good and its fruit. The fruits are not only delicious and useful, but raises the desire of people to love him. Dhalim king is wise and not otherwise, like a bad tree and no fruit, because it shunned and disliked people. Diajuga collect Imam al-Ghazali, who stated that the reason the human body is like a king in a state. A state would be better if the king who assumed the reins of his duties as a just and wise leaders, that use common sense at its best. A leader must meet the following conditions: (1) Hifz, that have a good memory, (2) Fahm, it has a true understanding of a variety of matters, (3) Fikr, sharp-witted and broad vision, (4) Iradat, require well-being, prosperity and progress for all groups of society, (5) Nur, illuminating the land with love or loving. then also quoted the view of a scholar in his book The Nature of al-`Aql wa` l-`aql. State is like a man: the king is a state of mind common sense, the ministers are made ​​based on overall consideration of mind and conscience (discussion); slaves is the tongue; letter words that are not arbitrary and do not give rise to defamation.Required a good king or his physical sense of spiritual good. Whereas in the 5th clause Bukhari al-Jauhari cite Scripture Adab al-Mulk, and noted that there are several other conditions that must be met by a candidate leader or king to govern the state with justice and true. (1) A king must be adult and mature to be able to distinguish between good and bad for him, the community and humanity; (2) A king let have adequate knowledge with regard to the problem of ethics, government, politics and religion. He must be friends with knowledgeable people and scholars, and is prepared to hear from them the things that he did not know. Advisers should also king of the learned knowledge, as well as honest and loving people, (3) the adoption of Ministers must mature and knowledgeable, and dominate the field of employment, (4) Have a good and interesting face, so people love him, not disabled mental and physical, (5) and a generous philanthropist, not miserly and stingy. Miserly and stingy nature is a sign of the idolatry and apostasy, (6) the good King should always keep in mind the people who do good and help him out of trouble, reply with welfare charity, (7) the good King must be firm and bold . If the coward king and army officers will also be a coward. Especially in the face of evil and threatening other countries national sovereignty (8) Do not like to eat and sleep a lot, and do not like to have fun and step out, because all of that will make him complacent and negligent in his duties as head of state; ( 9) Not fun playing girls; (10) suggest a king chosen from among men qualified to lead the country. Except under duress. Clause 6 th begins with the collection of Surat al-Nahl, verse 90, “Inna l-Lahu` yes `muru bi` l-`adl wa’l-ihsan” – Allah ta `ala order to do justice and courtesy. Fairness in perrbuatan, words and intentions true meaning of existence while pregnant benevolent welfare and wisdom in act, word and work. The authors also cite a Hadith stating that just the sign of the glory of religion, the source strength of a king and the base of human welfare. According to the Kitab al-Khairat al-Mulk: King of the fair was the grace of God which is given to people who believe that dhalim king while often a curse and punishment handed down to society and goofy mayhem. Other Hadith is also quoted: King loves his people will be deterred not enter the gates of heaven and have difficulty gain favor with God. Referring to the book Adab al-Mulk, Bukhari said there were three main things that make a government collapse: (1) The King did not obtain a true and detailed information about the state of the true state, and simply accept the opinion of the parties or (2) the King to protect the wicked, vile, foolish, greedy and sucker people; (3) royal officials are happy to lie news , spreading rumors, making machinate making conflicts arise. * Dr. Abdul Hadi WM


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