Came home only to find this wet postcard, its been a long time since I received any postcards.
Maybe I should start sending some to my friends out there, lol I’m really bad when it comes to keeping in touch with snail mail now that you have Turbo ! 😛

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Someone left this book outside the library, and my gosh its been ages since I had this book back in my school days!. This was the book of how I learn how to repair the flush, build my own wooden savings box and a small pencil case rack,miserably sew the apron, and screwing up what meant to be a bulls eye egg turning into scramble egg instead haha!

I never get to use any of those skills except for the scrambled egg ;P

‘Intellectual History Of Islam In The Malay Nusantara Century Literature 14-19 AD’

‘Intellectual History Of Islam In The Malay Nusantara Century Literature 14-19 AD’

Islam has emerged in the archipelago around the 8th century and 9 M carried by Arab and Persian traders. Still new in the 13th century M, along with the founding of the Indian government Pasai (1272-1450 AD), this religion began to grow and spread. In this oldest major Islamic government and Islamic cultural civilization grow and bloom. As a prosperous trading city and a major center of religious activity in the archipelago, Why should not only focus the attention of the Arab and Persian traders.But also attracted the attention of scholars and intellectuals from the Arab and Persian states to come to this city with the aim of spreading the faith and develop knowledge. In the book Rihlah (Paris 1893:230), Ibn Batuta who visited Sumatra in 1336 M, preached that kings and nobles Pasai often invite scholars and intellectuals from the Arab and Persian to discuss various matters of religion and religious knowledge in his palace. Due to overwhelming response that they were happy to live in Pasai and open education agency that allows teaching of Islam and the religion evolved.

Knowledge taught in Islamic educational institutions among others are:

(1) Basics of Islamic teachings,

(2) Islamic law,

(3) Knowledge Kalam or theology;

(4) Knowledge of Sufism,

(5) Knowledge of Tafsir and Hadith:

(6) A variety of other knowledge which is essential for the spread of Islam such as mathematics, Mantiq (logic), grammar (Arabic grammar), astronomy, science ketabiban, date etc..

In addition to religious knowledge and general knowledge, which is taught in Islamic educational institutions at that time were Arab and Persian Literature (Hamid Ismail 1983:2)

One of the oldest Islamic intellectual work that is produced in Pasai Pasai Kings saga. Book is written after the Majapahit kingdom conquered by the year 1365 (Ibrahim Alfian 1999:52). Seen from the pattern of the Malay language and the characters are used, the work done at the time of complete Malay language has truly experienced the process of Islamization and Jawi characters, namely Arabic characters Malayised, has started strong and broadly used. Further Malay Jawi Pasai and characters are used by Muslim writers in the archipelago until the end of the 19th century as a lingua franca M key intellectual field as in the field of trade and administration (Collin 1992).

Intellectual works of the early Muslims who were born in the range of government

Samudra Pasai is plated several Persian epic, as Hikayat Muhammad Ali Hanafiya Hikayat Amir Hamzah, Hikayat Bayan Budiman and others. Two first tale is a story of heroism (EPOS), based on the history of heroism in the early period of Islam’s propagation. In Malay History (1607 M) Tun Sri Lanang this tale mentions that two very popular in Malacca at the end of the 15th century CE and Malacca people read it to inspire their war against the Portuguese. Tun Sri Lanang also mentions favorite people their sultan of Malacca and Sufism. A book Durr al-Manzum Sufism Maulana Abu Ishaq essay was translated into Malay language Patakan Abdullah, a famous scholar from Pasai, meet request Mansur Shah, Sultan of Malacca mid 15th century M (Ibrahim Alfian 1999:53).

Now the saga Budiman, a framed story included into such kind of solace Thousand and One Nights story. Islamic works of other very popular is Qasidah al-Burdah, strands of praise poems to the Prophet Muhammad commonly sung together in celebration of Birthday of Prophet. This book was written by Shaykh al-Busiri, an Egyptian Sufi poet of the 13th century CE and was translated into Malay language in the 15th century M. In his book Tuhfat al-Mujahideen, Muslim historians of the 15th century M Zainuddin al-Ma `bari who’ve been to Sumatra say that Islamic preachers preaching to speak run stories about the life and struggle of the Prophet Muhammad and the result is very effective (Ismail Hamid 1983:27).

After Pasai suffered a setback, the cultural center and the spread of Islam moved to Malacca (1400-1511 M) and after Malacca Portuguese ditalukkan the cultural center and the spread of Islam was moved to Aceh Darussalam (1516-1700 m).

But unfortunate that copies of Islamic Malay written in the 14th century and 15 M almost no one comes to us now script-script found, most are copies or arrangement, written in the 16th century and 17 M, in particular in coastal cities such as Barus within the Sultanate of Aceh, Pasai and others. It’s just obvious, as in the days of Hindu literature major media delivery tampi ideas and religious sciences. This tendency continues to stick in the development of Malay literature until the 18th century and 19 M.

From the fact that we also know that there are several types of early literature favored, that the work pattern of history, stories of the prophets, especially the story about the life and struggle of the Prophet Muhammad, who works as a framed story pelipu r Lara and thus its teaching media character. Also the fact is we know that Sufism is very influenced soul Malay Muslim intelligentsia.

Transition Age

Taufik Abdullah (2002) divide the history of Islamic thought in the archipelago from the 13th century to the mid 19th century M into three waves. First wave is the wave of the policies put the Islamic cosmopolitanism, namely cultural attitudes that make themselves as part of a cosmopolitan society with Islamic culture references. This wave occurred before and after the advent of the Indian government Pasai to the end of the 14th century M. In the second wave occurred culture and the reality of the process of Islamization in a big way. Islam is used as a mirror to see and understand reality. Old inheritance from pre-Islamic times, the Syamanistik, Hinduistik and Buddhistik transformed into a situation of Islamic thought and rarely understood as something that islami from the standpoint of doctrine. This wave concur with the advent of the Malacca Sultanate (1400-1511) and Aceh Darussalam (1516-1700).In the Third Wave, as centers of Islam in the archipelago began to spread almost all over the archipelago, this power centers ‘seem’ are competing to produce great scholars. In this wave of Islamic orthodoxy process experienced peak time. This happened in the century 18-19 M.

First wave called Taufik Abdullah’s referred to as the Early and transition in the history of Islamic Literature in the archipelago, especially the Malays. At this time-sajajk translation eulogy to the Prophet (al-MADA `ih al-nabawiyah) began, followed by plating the stories and sagas Arab Muslim Persian into Malay language as Masjid Muhammad Ali Hanafiyah, Hikayat Amir Hamzah, Hikayat Bayan Budiman and others. This period is followed by the transition, which is marked by copying and compositing back masterpieces of Hindu-Buddhist period with given environment and Islamic breath. The characteristics of the transition of the work is very interesting, because the elements of Islam that appear initially insignificant. Allah Ta `ala instance initially called Super Noble Gods, then replaced the new King Shah Alam and then called Allah Subhana wa Ta` ala. Honourable mention Prosecutor, Raja Shah Alam and others look for example at poetry Sufism Fansuri Hamzah and his disciples in the 16th century and 17 M.Similarly, figures from the story given Muslim names. The role of the gods replaced by jinn, lords, fairies and other fine makhluq. Was not a place for stories rarely transferred to the state whose king had converted to Islam. And the king told a victory for belief in the omnipotence That One.

The stories of Hindu time sheets or dgubah back in general are stories that include the type of solace, especially the kind of love story and adventure spiced war between the figures in favor of the heathen king kebanaran against wrongdoers. Sooner or later these stories transformed into allegory or parable Sufi stories. The famous example is the saga Mardan Shah, a Sufi allegory written based on a story from India that is similar to the popular story Anglingdarma in Java. Mardan Shah tokohnya adventure and do battle against his enemies, revamped its function, namely to explain the stages spiritually (maqam) that must be a seeker of knowledge of God in Sufism or mysticism. If unabridged-Grave Grave These include:

(1) struggle, struggle subjecting yourself or low libido composure;

(2) Musyahadah, witnessing the oneness of the One intuitively or kalbiah;

(3) Mukasyafah, tersingkapnya veil that covers the inner vision.

Unlike the Shah Mardan saga, composed based on the Hindu story, is the story of Dewa Ruci, composed based on the story of Alexander the Great Islamic Persia saga. Iskandar figure Milky replaced, and replaced with the God of the Prophet Khaidir Ruci. Water of Life motif search (ma `al-life) in the story, the search for enlightenment is the omen or divine knowledge that causes a person to remain (hereafter ‘) in the Eternal, that God Almighty.

It is at this time the influence of Sufism and Persian literature is very dominant in all aspects of Islamic culture. The order of the chapters in the saga and the books of Sufism is also copied from the model found in Persian literature. The best example of such works is The Tale of the Poor, Master’s Degree saga, saga Ahmad Mohammed, ma Hikyat There was said, and Tale of Tale Indraputra Shah Mardan.So did the Book of Taj al-Salatin (The Crown of Kings) written by al-Bukhari Jeweler in Aceh in early 17th century, the various chapters copied the restructuring of the Persian scriptures that talk of ethics and governance problems.

Unfortunately, as has been presented, original copies of the works written in the 14th century and 15 M tu have not found it yet. Paper copies are generally observed during the 17th abd M. Of course both the content as well as language and style order sastranya already undergone changes. To know the main features of the works of the transition period we must turn to Java, in particular-mysticism mysticism mysticism Sunan Bonang and pamphlets written between the end of the 15th century and early 16th century M. Makhdum Ibrahim alias Sunan Bonang was a Sufi saint of the island of Java that is very prolific in the world of writing. He lived between the mid-15th century until the early 16th century M, corresponding to the last great Hindu kingdom retreat Majapahit and Demak Sultanate bangunya, the first Islamic kingdom in Java. He had studied at Malacca and Pasai. His works truly reflect the transition from Hinduism to Islam in the archipelago.

Sunan Bonang works on mysticism in general form, namely in the form of poems featuring Javanese tembang way spiritually in the knowledge of Sufism, using a symbol-a symbol or parable. Between mysticism is mysticism-suluknya Caliph, Kaderesan mysticism, mysticism Regol, Bentur mysticism, mysticism Wujil, Wasiyat mysticism, mysticism Latri Gita and others. He also wrote a treatise of Sufism in the form of a dialogue between a Sufi teacher and students. One of the versions of the brochure tasawufnya been transliterated and translated into English by Drewes (1969) under the title The Admonitions of Seh Bari (“Pitutur Sheikh Bari”). Among the characteristics of the transition work

1. Works of literature, as other religious and intellectual discourse,

regarded as mysticism, that is less spiritual path toward the Supreme Truth.

2. Aesthetic vision made based literary asaspenciptaan

on metaphysics or cosmology developed Islamic Arab and Persian Sufi of the 12th century and 13 M as Ibn `Arabi, Imam al-Ghazzali and Jalaluddin al-Rumi. Following system Sufi metaphysics, the nature of existence so split four, reality and order of beauty or truth presented in the paper also consists of four structured in hierarchical layers. Four natural or inherent order from top to bottom is the Divine Nature (nature Lahut), Nature spiritually (natural jabarut), Nature squalor (natural Malakut) and Physical Environment (natural nasut).

3. Elements of local culture to be preserved and integrated into the system

Islam. For example, one member mentioned mahayogi enlightened, whereas in Malay book called pastor. Shaykh new words and faqir used. To explain the relationship with the One ‘a lot’, used the relationship between the puppeteer, puppet and color movies.

4. Analogously erotic imagery (love) from often used to describe the experience of transcendental love (‘ishq) seorangsalik (facer spiritual path) in found Lover, The One.

New Self consciousness

Final actual transition time can not be given a clear boundary in the history of the Malay Islamic Literature, because the works are written or composed in the 15th century and 16 M still composed back in the following centuries, but until the 19th century M, good in Malay or Javanese, Sundanese, Acehnese, Bugis, Madurese, Sasak, Banjar, Minangkabau, Makassar, Mandailings and others. But the end of the 16th century and the early twentieth century M-17 M, corresponding to the expansion of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam as a large state in Southeast Asia, the second wave began in the sense of Islamic thought indeed. Currently Islamization of reality is actually executed fully and Islam is used as a mirror to see and understand the reality of life in almost every aspect. Two interconnected symptoms appear dominant at this time, namely the tendency expressed glance at the reflection of Sufism in question man’s relationship with the Eternal, and the formulation of the power systems that generate book about the theory of statehood (Taufik Abdullah, 2002). At this time of great men appear in the field of religion and literature are thinking color and determine the intellectual development of Islam at the time afterwards.

The first represents the dominant symptoms and Syamsudin Sumatrani Fansuri Hamzah (also called Pasai Syamsudin) with the disciples at the end of the 6th century and early 17th century M. Representing the second symptom is Bukhari al-Jauhari and Nuruddin al-Raniri, which appear in order in the first half of the 17th century M, when Aceh achieve peak success as a religious center, cultural and political activities of Muslims. At this time the religious scriptures – fiqh, theology and mysticism – for the first time systematically written, philosophical and scientific. So did this for the first time ever born religious poems, especially poems Sufism, a truly self-expressive and raise a new consciousness. Through the works of the Sufis and scholars of the 17th century Aceh M Islam told this as part of a ‘legitimate self’ and part of ‘the history of the archipelago’ legitimate anyway. Like Taufik Abdullah said, “In this second wave, power theory that departs from the approach formulated sufistik start. ‘Country’ is no longer just refelksi from kedirian the king but also a platform for the institution that is the realization of a harmonious union between the ‘king’ and ‘the people’, and between makhluq and Khaliq “(Ibid).

The first symptom is a key figure Fansuri Hamza, a prominent Sufis, theologians, great writer and adventurer. He was born in the land Fansuri or Barus, and the estimated life of the mid-16th century and 17 M. Since the end of the 16th century M native land into the territory of Aceh Darussalam. According to Ali Hasymi (1984), along with his brother Ali Fansuri, he set up a foster mother (pesantren) large Singkil district, not far from his birthplace.

Hamzah Fansuri first learn after a member tariqah Sufism Qadiriyah erected by Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani and in this tariqah is he dibai’at. Having traveled to various Islamic centers such as Baghdad, Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem, he returned to his homeland and to develop their own teaching of Sufism. Sufism teachings he developed greatly influenced thinking wujudiyah Ibn `Arabi, al-Qunawi Sadrudin and Fakhrudin` Iraqi. While sastranya writings greatly influenced Fariduddin al-Aththar, Jalaluddin al-Rumi and Abdur Rahman al-Jami.

Brochure Sufism Shaykh al-Fansuri found there are three, namely wine of al-`Asyiqin (Beverage People erotica), Asrar al-` Arifin (Confidential Member Enlightenment) and al-Muntahi. Wine of his book al-Asyiqin by al-Attas (1970) is regarded as his first. In addition it is considered also as the first scientific treatise written in the Malay language. Other versions of the title Zinat al-Muwahhidin (Monotheists jewelry). While tasawufnya poems found no less than 32 tie-ties or string [1]. Lyric poetry is considered as “poetic Malay ‘first written in the Malay language, that quatrain with AAAA final sound pattern in each row (Al-Attas 1968 Braginsky 1991 and 1992). Syamsudin al-Sumatrani (d. 1630 M) said the poem is as ruba’i, that quatrain with two Misra ‘(Ali Hasymi 1975)

Lyric poetry has some specific features in the future be part of it attached to the common features of Malay poetry Sufism. In addition to showing that the lyric poetry of his time from the process of Islamization of the Malay culture reached its zenith. Ssyair important features poems Hamzah Fansuri are: First, the application of such markers faqir authorship, commerce subsidiary, herbal child, `asyiq etc., all of which transformed the concept of Sufi spiritual level (maqam) highest spiritual path or knowledge mysticism. Second, many passages of the Qur’an, Hadith, sayings and words of Arabic, some of which have long been used as a metaphor, terminology and conceptual citraan Sufi writers of Arabic and Persian. In conceptual citraan taken from the Qur’an and made contemplative Sufi center is al-Bayt al-ma `mur (Q 52:4) to mention the Kaaba and heart; qaba qawsayn awadna (53:9) = distance circle two bows, describe nearby God and man; Ayna tuwallu fa-ma-tsamma wajh God (Q 2:115) = where are you looking at even the face of God will appear; kuntu kanzan.

Third, in each of the last stanza poem bail-bond of the Sufis always include the name and takhallus her self, that nickname name that is usually based on the name of the birthplace of the poet or the city where he grew up. There the poet also expresses kesufianyang experience level and achieved. Here the poet really emphasize the importance of individuality in the creation of poetry (Teeuw 1994 Abdul Hadi WM 2001: 136-146).

Fourth, the use of imagery and citraan-citraan symbolic or conceptual common Sufi poets in the Arab and Persian Sufism draw their experiences and ideas with regard to love, mystical intoxication, mortal, enlightened, order exists and others. Eg wine or alcohol intoxication mystical and wine glasses; bird (soul), which merges with ocean fish, which refers to the mystical associations; lover, who is more often called Mahbub; ocean and waves, or markab ship, which sailed to the city of Tawheed; hill hamper or a ‘mountain of asyiq meet with her Lover; travel and night use a torch torches (Muhammad), Kabah, and so forth. This is analogous imagery transformed into the cultural and natural environment Malay life.Converted into wine and grape sorbet, wine glasses revamped with Takir from banana leaves.

In addition there are quite a lot of natural imagery taken from Malay life and culture, such as wood, camphor, boat with amenities and much more of course. Parable or symbolic citraan-citraan used as a means to describe the experience of Sufism poets around maqam (spiritual level) and ahwal (spiritual state) achieved a spiritual path facer (mysticism). All the above indicate prevalence poet knowledge of Arabic and Persian literature, as well as familiarity with the culture of poets society.

Fifth, because a well-balanced mix between diction (choice of words), rhyme and other puitik elements, Hamzah Fansuri poems creates a ekstase (wajd) in reading, not less like atmosphere that is created at the time of the Sufis do ritual, rites and same, ‘the spiritual concert accompanied by chanting, singing and reading poetry.

Emphasis on individuality with respect to the fact that Sufism own experience. Annemarie Schimmel (1981:17) says: “Sufism means, the formulation period, primarily as a spiritually deepening Islamic teachings, a personal experience about the secret essence of the Islamic religion, namely faith, ‘witness (musyahadah) that God is One”.

To specify that the expressed in the poems is a personal experience, the string of bytes closing lyric (ranging from 13 to 21 bytes) poet always put his name and takhallus. In Sufi literature convention is intended as a liberation of the soul, the other is a transient form of ‘(removal of low nafsru due fused with the Eternal Will. Jiawa release is another form of the enlightened. Collection demonstrate the following:

Hamzah Fansuri in the Malay States
Place lime in wood
Originally manikam of which would wither
With world knowledge in breast eateth
(Tie-bond XV)

Hamzah Syahr Nawi too write
Like all charred wood
Originally sea no torrent
Become lime in Camphorated
(Tie-bond XXVI)

In the poem “Hamzah Fansuri the Malay states / Location of the lime in the wood …” he uses the analogy of a tree Camphorated main production city of his birth. The analogy used to describe the transient experience ‘, as he says, “Like all charred wood.” Sometimes it replaces wood citraan with his physical body as the inner self (soul) do `uzlat to finally get enlightened and see that he is actually more of a spiritual than makhluq physical makhluq:

Hamza `uzlat in the body
Ronanya exhausted all autumn
Outward and inward into torch
He had no enemies
(Tie-bond XVIII)

Sometimes travel as a cruise heading digambarkaan Sufism Tawheed City. Travel Sufism in fact also a dive into the ocean there. To show the analogy is analogous diving into the ocean. Penyir use the analogy of which also saw an increase in his close poet Malay culture and community life. The beauty of women’s clothing Malays who live in homes that berpatam marginal and doors filled with beautiful sculptures, made tasawufnya imagery to convey ideas.

Subhan Allah too perfect
Make pious and ignorant people
With his slave da’im It washil
That’s sweetheart called fair
Mahbubmu was no fighting
Another more pious nobleman
Love more virtuous
Captured by the beta
Another flower Bersunting bermalai
Various color separation
Know the air (sem) sound in sakai (= makhluq)
By the people oblivious
Remember-remember you passing
Do not rush you dizzy
Muhammad Yogya torch thou make
That come your way salim
His house `ali berpatam marginal
Perfect wise kindness bisai
Fine lid too Pingai
Da’im air (sem) sound behind the curtain
If so you `Ashiq and drunk
Wearing Khandi go menjaluk
Into the fence Yogya kaumasuk
Ghayr goods (= the other) God all you batty
(Tie-bond II)

Overview trip up from low to high to draw Sufi spiritual journey toward self from low desires Ultimate is compatible with an overview of the Sufi order present in the ontology. The order from bottom to top are: First, the nature nasut (physical environment, also known as al-mulk nature, nature testimony); second nature Malakut (spiritual nature, psyche, also called natural example; Third, environmental jabarut (spiritual realm) , and four nature Lahut (divine nature) (Md. Salleh Yaapar 2002:83). Someone who knows the nature of such order will be completed dirnya and was exposed to recognize the fact itself.

Taj al-Salatin

This book written in 1603 finished in Aceh Darussalam and is the only essay Bukhari al-Jauhari found to date. When the Sultanate of Aceh was still under the reign of Sultan Alauddin Shah Ri `aayat title Sayyid al-Mukammil (1590-1604 AD), grandfather of Sultan Iskandar Muda (1607-1636 m). This book as a work of literature in the book are grouped into manners, namely books that discuss issues of ethics, politics and government. Description of the problems is explained through interesting stories, taken from various sources and then refashioned by the author,

Among the books that are used as reference materials are (1) symbols of al-Mulk or Siyasat-namah(Book of Politics) Nizam al-Mulk essays written between 1092 to 1106 m, (2) Asrar-namah (Book of Secrets of Life) Fariduddin ‘Attar works (1188), (3) work Muhsini Akhlaq Husain al-Wa `iz Kasyifi ​​(1494) (4) Stories Arabic and Persian as Layla and insane, Khusraw and Sirin, Joseph and wife, Mahmud and Ayaz , and many more; (5) Book Jami ‘al-Thawarikh (Book of World History) written to Sultan Mughal in Delhi namely Humayun (1535-1556), and others.

The question presented is warm questions at that time. Although the Sultanate of Aceh is undergoing an internal crisis, which caused Sultan Sayyid al-Mukammil forced abdication by her two children and then put in prison at the time of Aceh is actively expanding his realm. Several states have not been Muslim population, such as land and Karo Batak, also conquered. In Bukhari al-Jauhari his attempt to explain how should the kings of Malay Muslims in a state whose population of multi-ethnic, multi-religious, multi-racial and multi-cultural.

Ideas and stories contained in this book is influencing political thought and intellectual tradition Malay.Chapters in it, that idea and tree deliberated always propped up by the verses of al-Qur `an and Hadith that is relevant. So did the stories used in part derived from the history books, as well as the stories of the people who are in the book as Alf Laylah wa Laylah (Thousand and One Nights) and others.Meaning implicit in the stories can be referred to in the verses of al-Qur’an and Hadith collected.

Sometimes the story acts as a base interpretation and meaning of the sacred text / meaning of tree stand trial. Sometimes at the end of the trial diselipkan poetry, which is a simple expression or conclusion of the trial plants. There are two basic underlying principal of this book: (1) Basic motion or discussion of the origin and Furu ‘, ie the branches of the discussion, (2) Basic aesthetic, that aesthetic means such as the use of stories and poems are used in explaining the topic . Aesthetic foundation was built from a central point of discussion, namely the problem of justice. And justice is seen as a door to the truth. Necessary to uphold justice wisdom and maturity in thought or use common sense.

The book is divided into 24 bab.Bab first was a turning point in the whole discussion discuss the importance of problem identification, identification of God as the light of the world and the truth of life and death problem. Themselves to be known by every Muslim is a man as vicegerent of God on earth and His servants. Through the teachings of Sufism, Bukhari al-Jauhari submit statehood ideal system and the role of a king is just and right.

Menurur Bukhari, though the world is a temporary place for the man, but the world has its own value and meaning that can not be ignored. The world is a test in which human deeds is crucial for survival in the afterlife. The heaviest punishment will be accepted by the kings of the dhalim and unfair, because they have more power than others, so freely organize and govern another man. Good and just king is the shadow of God, run something based on tradition and the law of God, are al-Rahman and al-womb as Khaliqnya.

In discussing justice, Bukhari not only provide ethical and moral meaning, but also gives him or metafisis ontological meaning. Here the king is good, as those entrusted albab. Those entrusted albab ethically interpreted as a person who uses the mind with good common sense in carrying out all acts and employment, especially in government. Sense, in Arabic, is alluded to as a cave situated high on a hill and difficult to achieve. Glory reason stated in the Hadith, `Awwal ma` lLahu’l khalaqa-`aql. The sign people use common sense and good thoughts are: (1) Be nice to the people who do wrong, please forgive him when his heart and had to apologize and repent;. (2) Be humble of people as inferior and respect the dignity, wisdom and higher knowledge, (3) Working in earnest and businesslike good job and noble act.; (4) Hate jobs despicable, evil act, all forms of defamation and the news is not necessarily true: ( 5) Menyebut nama Allah senantiasa dan meminta ampun serta petunjuk kepada-Nya, ingat akan kematian dan siksa kubur; (6) Mengatakan hanya apa yang benar-benar diketahui dan dimengerti, dan sesuai tempat dan waktu, yaitu arif menyampaikan sesuatu; (7) Dalam kesukaran selalu bergantung kepada Allah swt dan yakin bahwa Allah dapat memudahkan segala yang sukar, asal berikhtiar dan berdoa dengan sungguh-sungguh.As reliance mahluq all, God is forgiving and kind.During this chapter Bukhari al-Jauhari collecting stories from Bani Sassab Nusyirwan king, who, when asked a judge of the intellect, common sense says that the government and sign jewelry perfection Persian kings . The wise and just bout as heavy tree good and its fruit. The fruits are not only delicious and useful, but raises the desire of people to love him. Dhalim king is wise and not otherwise, like a bad tree and no fruit, because it shunned and disliked people. Diajuga collect Imam al-Ghazali, who stated that the reason the human body is like a king in a state. A state would be better if the king who assumed the reins of his duties as a just and wise leaders, that use common sense at its best. A leader must meet the following conditions: (1) Hifz, that have a good memory, (2) Fahm, it has a true understanding of a variety of matters, (3) Fikr, sharp-witted and broad vision, (4) Iradat, require well-being, prosperity and progress for all groups of society, (5) Nur, illuminating the land with love or loving. then also quoted the view of a scholar in his book The Nature of al-`Aql wa` l-`aql. State is like a man: the king is a state of mind common sense, the ministers are made ​​based on overall consideration of mind and conscience (discussion); slaves is the tongue; letter words that are not arbitrary and do not give rise to defamation.Required a good king or his physical sense of spiritual good. Whereas in the 5th clause Bukhari al-Jauhari cite Scripture Adab al-Mulk, and noted that there are several other conditions that must be met by a candidate leader or king to govern the state with justice and true. (1) A king must be adult and mature to be able to distinguish between good and bad for him, the community and humanity; (2) A king let have adequate knowledge with regard to the problem of ethics, government, politics and religion. He must be friends with knowledgeable people and scholars, and is prepared to hear from them the things that he did not know. Advisers should also king of the learned knowledge, as well as honest and loving people, (3) the adoption of Ministers must mature and knowledgeable, and dominate the field of employment, (4) Have a good and interesting face, so people love him, not disabled mental and physical, (5) and a generous philanthropist, not miserly and stingy. Miserly and stingy nature is a sign of the idolatry and apostasy, (6) the good King should always keep in mind the people who do good and help him out of trouble, reply with welfare charity, (7) the good King must be firm and bold . If the coward king and army officers will also be a coward. Especially in the face of evil and threatening other countries national sovereignty (8) Do not like to eat and sleep a lot, and do not like to have fun and step out, because all of that will make him complacent and negligent in his duties as head of state; ( 9) Not fun playing girls; (10) suggest a king chosen from among men qualified to lead the country. Except under duress. Clause 6 th begins with the collection of Surat al-Nahl, verse 90, “Inna l-Lahu` yes `muru bi` l-`adl wa’l-ihsan” – Allah ta `ala order to do justice and courtesy. Fairness in perrbuatan, words and intentions true meaning of existence while pregnant benevolent welfare and wisdom in act, word and work. The authors also cite a Hadith stating that just the sign of the glory of religion, the source strength of a king and the base of human welfare. According to the Kitab al-Khairat al-Mulk: King of the fair was the grace of God which is given to people who believe that dhalim king while often a curse and punishment handed down to society and goofy mayhem. Other Hadith is also quoted: King loves his people will be deterred not enter the gates of heaven and have difficulty gain favor with God. Referring to the book Adab al-Mulk, Bukhari said there were three main things that make a government collapse: (1) The King did not obtain a true and detailed information about the state of the true state, and simply accept the opinion of the parties or (2) the King to protect the wicked, vile, foolish, greedy and sucker people; (3) royal officials are happy to lie news , spreading rumors, making machinate making conflicts arise. * Dr. Abdul Hadi WM

A ‘Golden Letter’ in Malay to Napoleon III

A ‘Golden Letter’ in Malay to Napoleon III

Illuminated letter in Malay from Engku Temenggung Seri Maharaja (Daing Ibrahim) of Johor to the Emperor of France (Napoleon III), written in Singapore on Monday 17 Syaaban 1273 (12 April 1857). Or.16126.

This beautiful royal Malay letter (Or.16126) from the ruler of Johor, Temenggung Daing Ibrahim, to the Emperor of France, written in Singapore in 1857, is a triumph of style over substance. Its thirteen golden lines pay effusive compliments to Napoleon III but little else, as can be seen from the translation (see link given below). The letter was accompanied by a handsome gift of Malay weaponry.

It is hard to know what either side hoped to gain from the despatch of such a magnificent missive, for in the mid-19th century French interests in Southeast Asia were primarily focused on Indochina, while Johor’s allegiance was firmly with the British. In the letter the Temenggung makes no requests of the French, and adroitly expresses his greatest praise for Napoleon III in terms of the Emperor’s cordial relations with Queen Victoria, ‘both sides thereby gaining in such strength that no other nation can match them, as long as the sun and moon revolve’ (bertambahlah kakuatan antara kedua pihak tiadalah siapa bangsa yang boleh bandingannya selagi ada perkitaran bulan dan matahari)

Politically, historically and diplomatically this letter could be regarded as something of a dead end, but as a work of art it is far more significant. Despite the frequent use of gold in Malay manuscript illumination, this is the earliest known example of chrysography – writing in gold ink – in a Malay letter. It is beautifully illuminated with a rectangular golden frame on all four sides of the textblock, surmounted with an elaborate arched headpiece in red, blue and gold.

In format and structure, this epistle an exemplar of the courtly Malay art of letterwriting. At the top is the kepala surat or letter heading in Arabic, Nur al-shams wa-al-qamr, ‘Light of the sun and the moon’; this phrase is very commonly encountered in Malay letters addressed to European officials. The letter opens conventionally with extensive opening compliments or puji-pujian, identifying the sender and addressee, and with fulsome praise for the Emperor on account of his renown. Strangely, we do not encounter the Arabic word wa-ba‘dahu or its equivalents such as the Malay kemudian daripada itu, traditionally used to terminate the compliments and mark the start of the contents proper, for the simple reason that there is no real content to this letter. The compliments meld seamlessly with a brief mention of the French envoy entrusted with the letter, before gliding into the final section with a statement of the accompanying gift and thence onto the termaktub, the closing line giving the place and date of writing.

At the top of the letter, in a conventional position with its midpoint precisely to the right of the first line, is stamped the round black ink seal of the Temenggung, inscribed in both Arabic and roman script

al-wāthiq billāh Datuk Temenggung Seri Maharaja ibn Temenggung Seri Maharaja sanat 1257 // AL WASEKCUPBILAH DATU TUMONGONG SREE MAHARAJAH BIN TUMONGONG
‘He who trusts in God, Datuk Temenggung Seri Maharaja, son of Temenggung Seri Maharaja, the year 1257 (AD 1841/2) // He who trusts in God, Datu Temongong Sree Maharajah, son of Tumongong’

The Temenggungs of Johor were amongst the political winners following the establishment of a British settlement at Singapore by Thomas Stamford Raffles in 1819, and the British-Dutch Treaty of London of 1824 which led to break-up of the historic kingdom of ‘Johor and Pahang and Riau and Lingga’. Daing Ibrahim’s son, Temenggung Abu Bakar, successfully negotiated with the British to assume the title ‘Sultan of Johor’, and founded the modern ruling house of Johor, now one of the states of Malaysia.

This letter has been digitised as part of the Malay manuscripts digitisation project (see my previous post ‘British Library’s Malay manuscripts to be digitised’, and a full transcription of the Malay text together with an English translation can be downloaded from this link: Download Or.16126 Malay text and translation

Source: http://hermankhan.blogspot.co.uk/2013/10/a-golden-letter-in-malay-to-napoleon-iii.html

Beyond Greed and Scarcity

Beyond Greed and Scarcity

by Bernard Lietaer

 Few people have worked in and on the money system in as many different capacities as Bernard Lietaer. He spent five years at the Central Bank in Belgium, and he was president of Belgium’s Electronic Payment System.

He has helped developing countries improve their hard currency earnings and taught international finance at the University of Louvain, in his native Belgium.

Bernard Lietaer was also the general manager and currency trader for one of the largest and most successful offshore currency funds.

He is currently a fellow at the Center for Sustainable Resources at the University of California at Berkeley.

YES! editor Sarah van Gelder talked to Bernard about the possibilities for a new kind of currency better suited to building community and sustainability. He can be reached to discuss this topic via an Internet conference at:http://www.transaction.net/money/


SARAH : Why do you put so much hope into the development of alternative currencies?

BERNARD : Money is like an iron ring we’ve put through our noses. We’ve forgotten that we designed it, and it’s now leading us around. I think it’s time to figure out where we want to go – in my opinion toward sustainability and community – and then design a money system that gets us there.

SARAH : So you would say that the design of money is actually at the root of much else that happens, or doesn’t happen, in society?

BERNARD : That’s right. While economic textbooks claim that people and corporations are competing for markets and resources, I claim that in reality they are competing for money – using markets and resources to do so. So designing new money systems really amounts to redesigning the target that orients much human effort.

Furthermore, I believe that greed and competition are not a result of immutable human temperament; I have come to the conclusion that greed and fear of scarcity are in fact being continuously created and amplified as a direct result of the kind of money we are using.
For example, we can produce more than enough food to feed everybody, and there is definitely enough work for everybody in the world, but there is clearly not enough money to pay for it all. The scarcity is in our national currencies. In fact, the job of central banks is to create and maintain that currency scarcity. The direct consequence is that we have to fight with each other in order to survive.

Money is created when banks lend it into existence (see article by Thomas Greco on page 19). When a bank provides you with a $100,000 mortgage, it creates only the principal, which you spend and which then circulates in the economy. The bank expects you to pay back $200,000 over the next 20 years, but it doesn’t create the second $100,000 – the interest. Instead, the bank sends you out into the tough world to battle against everybody else to bring back the second $100,000.

SARAH : So some people have to lose in order for others to win? Some have to default on their loan in order for others to get the money needed to pay off that interest?

BERNARD : That’s right. All the banks are doing the same thing when they lend money into existence. That is why the decisions made by central banks, like the Federal Reserve in the US, are so important – increased interest costs automatically determine a larger proportion of necessary bankruptcies.

So when the bank verifies your “creditworthiness,” it is really checking whether you are capable of competing and winning against other players – able to extract the second $100,000 that was never created. And if you fail in that game, you lose your house or whatever other collateral you had to put up.

SARAH : That also influences the unemployment rate.

BERNARD : It’s certainly a major factor, but there’s more to it. Information technologies increasingly allow us to attain very good economic growth without increases in employment. I believe we’re seeing one of the last job-driven affluent periods in the US right now. As Jeremy Rifkin argues in his book, The End of Work, jobs are basically not going to be there anymore, even in “good times.”

A study done by The International Metalworkers Federation in Geneva predicts that within the next 30 years, 2 or 3 percent of the world’s population will be able to produce everything we need on the planet. Even if they’re off by a factor of 10, we’d still have a question of what 80 percent of humanity will do.

My forecast is that local currencies will be a major tool for social design in the 21st century, if for no other reasons than employment. I don’t claim that these local currencies will or should replace national currencies; that is why I call them “complementary” currencies. The national, competition-generating currencies will still have a role in the competitive global market. I believe, however, that complementary local currencies are a lot better suited to developing cooperative, local economies.

SARAH : And these local economies will provide a form of employment that won’t be threatened with extinction?

BERNARD : As a first step, that is correct. For example, in France, there are now 300 local exchange networks, called Grain de Sel, literally “Grain of Salt.” These systems – which arose exactly when and where the unemployment levels reached about 12 percent – facilitate exchanges of everything from rent to organic produce, but they do something else as well. Every fortnight in the Ariege, in southwestern France, there is a big party. People come to trade not only cheeses, fruits, and cakes as in the normal market days, but also hours of plumbing, haircuts, sailing or English lessons. Only local currencies accepted!

Local currency creates work, and I make a distinction between work and jobs. A job is what you do for a living; work is what you do because you like to do it. I expect jobs to increasingly become obsolete, but there is still an almost infinite amount of fascinating work to be done.

For example, in France you find people offering guitar lessons and requesting lessons in German. Neither would pay in French francs. What’s nice about local currency is that when people create their own money, they don’t need to build in a scarcity factor. And they don’t need to get currency from elsewhere in order to have a means of making an exchange with a neighbor.

Edgar Cahn’s Time Dollars are a classical example. As soon as you have an agreement between two people about a transaction using Time Dollars, they literally create the necessary “money” in the process; there’s no scarcity of money. That does not mean there’s an infinite amount of this currency, either; you cannot give me 500,000 hours – nobody has 500,000 hours to give. So there’s a ceiling on it, yes, but there’s no artificial scarcity. Instead of pitting people against each other, the system actually helps them cooperate.

SARAH : So you’re suggesting that scarcity needn’t be a guiding principle of our economic system. But isn’t scarcity absolutely fundamental to economics, especially in a world of limited resources?

BERNARD : My analysis of this question is based on the work of Carl Gustav Jung because he is the only one with a theoretical framework for collective psychology, and money is fundamentally a phenomenon of collective psychology.

A key concept Jung uses is the archetype, which can be described as an emotional field that mobilizes people, individually or collectively, in a particular direction. Jung showed that whenever a particular archetype is repressed, two types of shadows emerge, which are polarities of each other.

For example, if my higher self – corresponding to the archetype of the King or the Queen – is repressed, I will behave either as a Tyrant or as a Weakling. These two shadows are connected to each other by fear. A Tyrant is tyrannical because he’s afraid of appearing weak; a Weakling is afraid of being tyrannical. Only someone with no fear of either one of these shadows can embody the archetype of the King.

Now let’s apply this framework to a well-documented phenomenon – the repression of the Great Mother archetype. The Great Mother archetype was very important in the Western world from the dawn of prehistory throughout the pre-Indo-European time periods, as it still is in many traditional cultures today. But this archetype has been violently repressed in the West for at least 5,000 years starting with the Indo-European invasions – reinforced by the anti-Goddess view of Judeo-Christianity, culminating with three centuries of witch hunts – all the way to the Victorian era.

If there is a repression of an archetype on this scale and for this length of time, the shadows manifest in a powerful way in society. After 5,000 years, people will consider the corresponding shadow behaviors as “normal.”

The question I have been asking is very simple: What are the shadows of the Great Mother archetype? I’m proposing that these shadows are greed and fear of scarcity. So it should come as no surprise that in Victorian times – at the apex of the repression of the Great Mother – a Scottish schoolmaster named Adam Smith noticed a lot of greed and scarcity around him and assumed that was how all “civilized” societies worked. Smith, as you know, created modern economics, which can be defined as a way of allocating scarce resources through the mechanism of individual, personal greed.

SARAH : Wow! So if greed and scarcity are the shadows, what does the Great Mother archetype herself represent in terms of economics?

BERNARD : Let’s first distinguish between the Goddess, who represented all aspects of the Divine, and the Great Mother, who specifically symbolizes planet Earth – fertility, nature, the flow of abundance in all aspects of life. Someone who has assimilated the Great Mother archetype trusts in the abundance of the universe. It’s when you lack trust that you want a big bank account. The first guy who accumulated a lot of stuff as protection against future uncertainty automatically had to start defending his pile against everybody else’s envy and needs. If a society is afraid of scarcity, it will actually create an environment in which it manifests well-grounded reasons to live in fear of scarcity. It is a self-fulfilling prophecy!

Also, we have been living for a long time under the belief that we need to create scarcity to create value. Although that is valid in some material domains, we extrapolate it to other domains where it may not be valid. For example, there’s nothing to prevent us from freely distributing information. The marginal cost of information today is practically nil. Nevertheless, we invent copyrights and patents in an attempt to keep it scarce.

SARAH : So fear of scarcity creates greed and hoarding, which in turn creates the scarcity that was feared. Whereas cultures that embody the Great Mother are based on abundance and generosity. Those ideas are implicit in the way you’ve defined community, are they not?

BERNARD : Actually it’s not my definition, it’s etymological. The origin of the word “community” comes from the Latin munus, which means the gift, and cum, which means together, among each other. So community literally means to give among each other.
Therefore I define my community as a group of people who welcome and honor my gifts, and from whom I can reasonably expect to receive gifts in return.

SARAH : And local currencies can facilitate that exchange of gifts.

BERNARD : The majority of the local currencies I know about have been started for the purpose of creating employment, but there is a growing group of people who are starting local currencies specifically to create community.

For example, I would feel funny calling my neighbor in the valley and saying, “I notice you have a lot of pears on your tree. Can I have them?” I would feel I needed to offer something in return. But if I’m going to offer scarce dollars, I might just as well go to the supermarket, so we end up not using the pears. If I have local currency, there’s no scarcity in the medium of exchange, so buying the pears becomes an excuse to interact.
In Takoma Park, Maryland, Olaf Egeberg started a local currency to facilitate these kinds of exchanges within his community. And the participants agree that is exactly what has been happening.

SARAH : That raises the question of whether local currencies can also be a means for people to meet their basic needs for food and housing, or would those sectors remain part of the competitive economy?

BERNARD : There are lots of people who love gardening, but who can’t make a living from it in the competitive world. If a gardener is unemployed, and I’m unemployed, in the normal economy we might both starve. However with complementary currencies, he can grow my salads, which I pay for in local currency earned by providing another service to someone else.

In Ithaca, “Hours” are accepted at the farmer’s market; the farmers can use the local currency to hire someone to help with the harvest or to do some repairs. Some landlords accept Hours for rent, particularly if they don’t have a mortgage that must be paid in scarce dollars.

When you have local currency, it quickly becomes clear what’s local and what’s not. K-Mart will accept dollars only; their suppliers are in Hong Kong or Singapore or Kansas City. But Ithaca’s local supermarket accepts Hours as well as dollars. By using local currencies, you create a bias toward local sustainability.

SARAH : Local currencies also provide communities with some buffering from the ups and downs of the global economy. You’ve been in the business of monitoring, dealing in, and even helping to design the global finance system. Why would communities want to be insulated from it?

BERNARD : First of all, today’s official monetary system has almost nothing to do with the real economy. Just to give you an idea, 1995 statistics indicate that the volume of currency exchanged on the global level is $1.3 trillion per day. This is 30 times more than the daily gross domestic product (GDP) of all of the developed countries (OECD) together. The annual GDP of the United States is turned in the market every three days!
Of that volume, only 2 or 3 percent has to do with real trade or investment; the remainder takes place in the speculative global cyber-casino. This means that the real economy has become rele-gated to a mere frosting on the speculative cake, an exact reversal of how it was just two decades ago.

SARAH : What are the implications of this? What does it mean for those of us who aren’t transacting deals across international boundaries?

BERNARD : For one thing, power has shifted irrevocably away from governments toward the financial markets. When a government does something not to the liking of the market – like the British in ’91, the French in ’94 or the Mexicans in ’95 – nobody sits down at the table and says “you shouldn’t do this.” A monetary crisis simply manifests in that currency. So a few hundred people, who are not elected by anybody and have no collective responsibility whatsoever, decide what your pension fund is worth – among other things.

SARAH : You’ve also talked about the possibility of a crash in this system…

BERNARD : Yes, I see it now as about a 50/50 chance over the next five or 10 years. Many people say it’s 100 percent, and with a much shorter time horizon. George Soros, who’s made part of his living doing what I used to do – speculating in currencies – concluded, “Instability is cumulative, so that eventual breakdown of freely floating exchanges is virtually assured.”

Joel Kurtzman, ex-editor at the Harvard Business Review, entitles his latest book:The Death of Moneyand forecasts an imminent collapse due to speculative frenzy.
Just to see how this could happen: all the OECD Central Banks’ reserves together represent about $640 billion. So in a crisis situation, if all the Central Banks were to agree to work together (which they never do) and if they were to use all their reserves (which is another thing that never happens) they have the funds to control only half the volume of a normal day of trading. In a crisis day, that volume could easily double or triple, and the total Central Bank reserves would last two or three hours.

SARAH : And the outcome would be?

BERNARD : If that happens, we would suddenly be in a very different world. In 1929, the stock market crashed, but the gold standard held. The monetary system held. Here, we are dealing with something that’s more fundamental. The only precedent I know of is the Roman Empire collapse, which ended Roman currency. That was, of course, at a time when it took about a century and a half for the breakdown to spread through the empire; now it would take a few hours.

SARAH : So local currencies could provide some resilience for a community that could help it survive a currency melt-down or some other international breakdown. You’ve also mentioned that local currencies help promote sustainability. What’s the connection?

BERNARD : To understand that, we need to see the relationship between interest rates and the ways we discount the future.

If I ask, “Do you want $100 now or $100 a year from now,” most people would want the money now simply because one can deposit money risk-free in a bank account and get about $110 a year later. Another way of putting it is that if I were to offer you $100 a year from now that would be about equal to offering you $90 today. This discounting of the future is referred to as ‘discounted cash flow’.

That means that under our current system it makes sense to cut down trees and put the money in the bank; the money in the bank will grow faster than trees. It makes sense to “save” money by building poorly insulated houses because the discounted cost of the extra energy over the lifetime of the house is cheaper than insulating.
We can, however, design a monetary system that does the opposite; it actually creates long-term thinking through what is called a “demurrage charge.” The demurrage charge is a concept developed by Silvio Gesell about a century ago. His idea was that money is a public good – like the telephone or bus transport – and that we should charge a small fee for using it. In other words, we create a negative rather than a positive interest rate.
What would that do? If I gave you a $100 bill and told you that a month from now you’re going to have to pay $1 to keep the money valid, what would you do?

SARAH : I suppose I would try to invest it in something else.

BERNARD : You got it. You know the expression, “Money is like manure; it’s only good when it’s spread out.” In the Gesell system, people would only use money as a medium of exchange, but not as a store for value. That would create work, because it would encourage circulation, and it would invert the short-term incentive system. Instead of cutting trees down to put the money in the bank, you would want to invest your money in living trees or installing insulation in your house.

SARAH : Has this ever been tried?

BERNARD : There are only three periods I have found: classical Egypt; about three centuries in the European Middle Ages, and a few years in the 1930s.
In ancient Egypt, when you stored grain, you would receive a token, which was exchangeable and became a type of currency. If you returned a year later with 10 tokens, you would only get nine tokens worth of grain, because rats and spoilage would have reduced the quantities, and because the guards at the storage facility had to be paid. So that amounted to a demurrage charge.

Egypt was the breadbasket for the ancient world, the gift of the Nile. Why? Because instead of keeping value in money, everybody invested in productive assets that would last forever – things like land improvements and irrigation systems.
Proof that the monetary system had something to do with this wealth is that it all ended abruptly as soon as the Romans replaced the Egyptian ‘grain standard’ currency with their own money system, with positive interest rates. After that, Egypt ceased being the grain-basket, and became a “developing country” as it is called today.

In Europe during the Middle Ages – the 10th to 13th centuries – local currencies were issued by local lords, and then periodically recalled and reissued with a tax collected in the process. Again, this was a form of demurrage that made money undesirable as a store of value. The result was the blossoming of culture and widespread well-being, corresponding exactly to the time period when these local currencies were used.
Practically all the cathedrals were built during this time period. If you think about what is required as investment for a small town to build a cathedral, it’s extraordinary.

SARAH : Because cathedrals take generations to build?

BERNARD : Well, not only that. Besides the obvious symbolic and religious roles – which I don’t want to belittle – one should remember that cathedrals had an important economic function; they attracted pilgrims, who, from a business perspective, played a similar role to tourists today. These cathedrals were built to last forever and create a long-term cash flow for the community. This was a way of creating abundance for you and your descendants for 13 generations! The proof is that it still works today; in Chartres, for instance, the bulk of the city’s businesses still live from the tourists who visit the cathedral 800 years after it was finished!

When the introduction of gunpowder technology enabled the kings to centralize power in the early 14th century, the first thing they did was to monopolize the money system. What happened? No more cathedrals were built. The population was just as devoutly Christian in the 14th or 15th century, but the economic incentive for collective long-term investments was gone.

I use the cathedral simply as an example. Accounts from 12th century estates show that mills and other productive assets were maintained at an extraordinary level of quality, with parts replaced even before they wore out. Recent studies have revealed that the quality of life for the common laborer in Europe was the highest in the 12th to 13th centuries; perhaps even higher than today. When you can’t keep savings in the form of money, you invest them in something that will produce value in the future. So this form of money created an extraordinary boom.

SARAH : Yet this was a period when Christianity was supreme in Europe and so presumably the Great Mother archetype was still being repressed.

BERNARD : Well, actually a very interesting religious symbol became prevalent during this time: the famous “Black Madonna.” There were hundreds of these statues during the 10th to 13th centuries, which were in fact statues of Isis with the child Horus sitting on her lap, directly imported from Egypt during the first Crusades. Her special vertical chair was called the “cathedra” (which is where the word cathedral comes from) and interestingly this chair was the exact symbol identifying Isis in ancient Egypt. The statues of the Black Madonnas were also identified in medieval time as the “Alma Mater” (literally the “Generous Mother,” an expression still used in America to refer to someone’s ‘mother university’).

The Black Madonnas were a direct continuity of the Great Mother in one of her most ancient forms. She symbolized birth and fertility, the wealth of the land. She symbolized spirit incarnate in matter, before the patriarchal societies separated spirit from matter. So here we have a direct archetypal linkage between the two civilizations that spontaneously created money systems with demurrage charges while creating unusual levels of abundance for the common people: ancient Egypt and 10th-to-13th century Europe. These money systems correspond exactly to the honoring of that archetype.

SARAH : How interesting! What potential do you see for local currencies to bring this Great Mother archetype of abundance and generosity into our economic system today?

BERNARD : The biggest issues that I believe humanity faces today are sustainability and the inequalities and breakdown in community, which create tensions that result in violence and wars. We can address both these issues with the same tool, by consciously creating currency systems that will enhance community and sustainability.

Significantly, we have witnessed in the past decades a clear re-awakening of the feminine archetype. It is reflected not only in the women’s movement, in the dramatic increase in ecological concerns, or in new epistemologies reintegrating spirit and matter, but also in the technologies that enable us to replace hierarchies with networks (such as the Internet).
Add to these trends the fact that for the first time in human history we have available the production technologies to create unprecedented abundance. All this converges into an extraordinary opportunity to combine the hardwareof our technologies of abundance and the softwareof archetypal shifts.

Such a combination has never been available at this scale or at this speed: it enables us to consciously design money to work for us, instead of us for it.
I propose that we choose to develop money systems that will enable us to attain sustainability and community healing on a local and global scale. These objectives are in our grasp within less than one generation’s time. Whether we materialize them or not will depend on our capacity to cooperate with each other to consciously reinvent our money.

Automated Restaurant in Japan Has No Wait Staff

When I saw this, my only concern is how many people won’t have a job the more people make these robots replacing the human capital

And how much we will lose touch from human communication

The changes in new technology and innovation only benefits multinational companies to produce more product with less and less worker.

They’d pay billions of dollar over machines and robots but wont pay a dime for worker if possible

Hence that leads to people having less job, and poverty increasing.

And even if there are jobs, it have turn into contract job where most of the workers don’t get the income they deserve because they can be replaced any time.

Only skilled worker will remain, and those who don’t have any experience wont get the chance to get a job

But, it will resort people to either steal, or beg, or for those who is creative enough and don’t mind taking a risk, create their own job.

But few people will have the courage to break out from this mind set and would go through every stage of their life trying to graduate to get a job they will never get because its either already full of robots doing your job, or senior worker who won’t retire.

Many can only find job in these fast food companies, but if even the fast food company that pays $3 – $5 per hour, uses robots to replace waiters , what chance do they have in the future job market?

There’s a difference between a ‘ Job’ and a ‘Career’, a job is a work that you have to do or not be given to do it if there is better candidate @ robot that can do twice as good as you. But a ‘Career’ is something you have to build over time, networks, skills, and even yourself.

I find pleasure in meeting local shop owner, running their own little restaurants, or even stalls, and grocery. To be able to know who is living in your neighborhood, who the man or women you can count on when you have any problem with your pipe, or need to make a new cabinet, or the pakcik or makcik that makes good food, who would gladly share their life story and how they started their business and sometimes gets discounts or get your food paid on the house. It wasn’t so much about how much you pay them or not, but more of being able to get to know your community that matters

But with the growing multinational company offering everything in one roof, and the franchise restaurants everywhere in the world, it certainly killed a lot of local business by their giant tentacles everywhere. You no longer know who you live with in the neighbourhood, even the guard or even the fast food restaurants have been replaced by foreign workers. There is nothing wrong having them here, but sometimes their presence still make you doubt or worry unnecessarily about because you can’t find any familiar face that can speak your language and at least something that you can relate. There are still prejudice that needs some time to put your heart at ease.

And its not just the local business, but also the local worker, you get replaced by foreign worker who would do anything, even if they are paid less than they deserve, because our money value are higher in their home country. Workers right will then be hard to fight for because they no longer have any control over their own rights since most of the job are contract based. And you get fired for that if they aren’t satisfied with your service or if they want to throw you out of the job if you protest against any unfairness that you found out.

But even the foreign workers aren’t safe too, some of them was forced to work under worst condition that they couldn’t do anything about it since the employer have the upper hand in most of the decision. If they don’t perform, they be sent back to their home country, else, they had to continue working and won’t have much to protest against. But that is just my opinion.

But, one thing I am sure of is that I don’t think its because the local people aren’t skilled or good at it, or the local business owner don’t know how to run their business, but the competition was too high that they can’t even accumulate enough capital to compete with giants or even stand a chance at all when they graduate. Do they?

Just like what Albert Einstein said:

“Everybody is a genius. But if you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, it will live its whole life believing that it is stupid.”